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War 47570 Votes 1985 duration=142 minute country=Soviet Union Rating=9 / 10. Free Va' e vedio. Free Va' e vedi sito. At Woods & Woods, we make it easy to get a VA-certified disability attorney. Our nationwide VA disability lawyers have successfully represented thousands of veterans. When you hire Woods & Woods, you’ll always get a VA accredited veterans benefits lawyer. Get help by calling toll-free at  (866) 232-5777  or  click here and fill out the free VA claim evaluation form. Why should I hire a VA certified disability attorney? You Have Been Denied:  We have filed thousands of VA benefits appeals. Every single one of our clients have one thing in common – they were all denied by the VA. A denial is not the end of your claim. Don’t let the complicated VA disability benefits appeal process  scare you – appealing is difficult but having qualified legal professionals handle your claim can help ease your mind. You Have Tried VSO’s:  A large majority of our clients first used free VSO’s who screwed up their initial application. Don’t worry, this is normal and you can start anew by filing an appeal. Our lawyers regularly clean up messes left by free veterans organizations. Unfortunately, there are a lot of unqualified people out there “helping” disabled veterans with their claims. You Are Frustrated:  First, take a deep breath – being frustrated with the VA disability benefits process is normal. The VA is a huge bureaucracy, but having a VA certified disability attorney who knows how to navigate the system can help your claim. After you hire a VA certified disability attorney, you no longer have to talk to the VA about your claim. Instead, you will now call your law firm. We will take care of the VA for you. You Have a Complicated Claim:  If you have a simple claim, using a free VSO might be a good idea. A VSO will be able to handle something simple like a tinnitus claim. However, if you are filing a more difficult claim, like Individual Unemployability Benefits, we highly suggest you get an experienced VA certified disability attorney. The more complicated your claim is, the better evidence you are going to need to be successful. Use our VA Disability Calculator to estimate your combined VA rating and monthly entitlement here. How a VA certified disability attorney can help. Gathering Evidence:  When you get your VA certified disability attorney at Woods and Woods, we get all the VA disability benefits evidence necessary for your claim. The way to win your claim is by having strong evidence and presenting it to the VA in a clear and concise manner. This is where experience plays a big part in claims – your VA certified disability attorney knows exactly what evidence you need. Filing Paperwork:  You probably already know because the government is involved there is going to be a ton a paperwork. Your VA certified disability attorney will take care of all your paperwork – we earn every penny you pay us. Our veterans disability benefits lawyers  will make sure all the i’s are dotted and the t’s are crossed before anything is submitted to the VA. Medical Experts:  Medical evidence can make or break a claim. Don’t expect the VA to just approve your claim because you served our country honorably – they want evidence. Woods & Woods has in-house doctors that review medical records and write reports. We also work with psychologists and vocational experts that are trained in VA law. We have a network of medical professionals we trust to get the evidence our clients need. Filing Appeals and Briefs:  If you hire Woods & Woods we file everything for your appeal. Our Board of Veterans Appeals (BVA) attorneys  have filed thousands upon thousands of appeals for veterans. We have a department of case analysts who are dedicated to writing briefs and preparing documents for your appeal. Woods & Woods has developed innovative case management strategies that get clients appeals filed correctly and efficiently. Researching VA Law:  There are decades of legal cases and precedents that affect VA disability claims. We have spent years and years researching VA law. There are many old cases that are relevant to veterans’ claims today. Citing a tiny law or legal case from 1987 could be a determining factor in your claim. This is where hiring a qualified VA certified disability attorney can make the difference in your claim. You only pay a VA certified disability attorney if they win. No Recovery, No Fee:  You only pay your VA certified disability attorney at Woods & Woods if your claim is successful. If you do not obtain veterans disability benefits, you don’t owe your VA certified disability attorney a penny. Our Fees:  Woods & Woods’ fee is 20% of back pay. Some VA disability lawyers  do charge more. Your fee will come straight from the VA. You won’t have to pay your attorney fee directly out-of-pocket. Others Fees:  Sometimes we must hire experts to win clients’ VA disability claims. Those fees are only paid if your claim is successful. Usually the reports needed by experts don’t cost that much and we always get the client’s permission before any case expenses are added to your case. If your claim is not successful, you do not have to repay a penny of your case expenses. Get help filing an application from a VA certified disability attorney. Application Help is Free:  If you are thinking about applying for VA benefits  talk to Woods & Woods first – it won’t cost you anything. We can make sure you get the forms to apply and know where to send them. We’ll help you get the VA disability process started if you haven’t yet already. Learn Your Rights:  As a veteran with disabilities, you have rights. These rights include compensation for your service-connected disabilities. The military promised to take care of you if injury from service occurred. Talk to a VA accredited veterans benefits lawyer about your rights as a disabled veteran. Ask Questions:  We don’t charge for questions. You can call us and ask all the questions you have about filing a claim, appealing a claim, your disabilities, or about hiring a VA disability compensation lawyer. Whatever questions you have about VA disability benefits, we’ll answer them to the best of our knowledge! Talk to a VA certified disability attorney about appealing. Learn Your Options:  After you had your VA disability denied or received a low-rating, you may not be sure what your options are at this point. The Veterans Administration does not always do a good job of explaining what options are available to veterans for the appeal process. There are different types of claims  you can submit after a low-rating or a denial. Some veterans should focus on VA mistakes, some should appeal a flat-out denial, and others should try increasing their veterans disability benefits rating. A VA certified disability attorney can help you decide what is the best of course of action for your claim. Get Your Appeal Started:  The VA benefits appeals lawyers at Woods & Woods can help get your appeal started right away. We have filed thousands upon thousands of appeals with the VA. Find out what options are available to you, your deadlines, and have us review your rating decisions. Get Legal Advice:  There is never a cost to get legal advice from a VA accredited veterans benefits lawyer. If you have questions about VA disability benefits claims, give us a call. The advice is always free. Remember, we founded this law firm to help injured and disabled people. Our entire mission is to get you the benefits you deserve. A VA certified disability attorney can help with many different types of claims. Your VA certified disability attorney at Woods & Woods can help with many different types of claims. Sometimes disabled veterans call us and don’t even know what type of claim to file – that isn’t a problem. We can get you on the right track if you call us. Here are some of the most common types of VA disability claims veterans file: 100% VA Disability Rating Claims 90% VA Disability Rating Claims 80% VA Disability Rating Claims Agent Orange Claims Bipolar Disorder Veterans Benefits Camp Lejeune Water Contamination Claims Cancer Veterans Benefits Clear and Unmistakable Error (CUE) Claims Compensation Claims Contaminated Groundwater Claims Depression Veterans Benefits Diabetes Veterans Benefits DIC Claims Fibromyalgia Claims Heart Disease Claims Individual Unemployability Benefits Mental Conditions Mesothelioma Veterans Benefits Physical Condtions PTSD Veterans Benefits Ratings Increase Claim Schizoaffective Disorder Claims Schizophrenia Claims Sleep Apnea Benefits Sleep Disorder Claims Total Disability Individual Unemployability Traumatic Brain Injuries VA Benefits Appeals Varicose Veins Veterans Disability Veterans Disability Benefits Widow Claims Get an experienced VA accredited veterans benefits lawyer. Most veterans never thought they would have to hire a VA accredited veterans benefits lawyer to get their benefits. Unfortunately, the VA denies lots of claims. At Woods & Woods, we’ve made the process of getting a VA accredited veterans benefits lawyer easy. We have also made hiring a VA accredited veterans benefits lawyer affordable – we never ask for money upfront. Never will a VA accredited veterans benefits lawyer at Woods & Woods bill by the hour. Your VA accredited veterans benefits lawyer at Woods & Woods won’t charge for calls either. We’ve Helped Thousands:  Our law firm has successfully represented thousands of injured and disabled people. When you call Woods & Woods, you get an experienced, knowledgeable, and tough VA certified disability attorney. Woods & Woods has fought the VA for thousands of veterans – it’s what we do every day. Nationally Recognized Attorneys:  Woods & Woods is a nationally respected law firm. Our reputation has earned the trust of hundreds of law firms nationally who have sent us clients over the years. When many other lawyers don’t know how to help their disabled veteran clients, they send them to Woods & Woods. Get a VA Certified Disability Attorney:  Call us today and get the help you deserve from a VA certified disability attorney. Have a conversation with us and tell us about your claim. We may request some documents and then make a determination about your legal options. There is never an obligation to hire us just because you reached out for help.

Free Va' e. Free Va' e vediorbis. Videos Learn more More Like This Animation | Adventure Fantasy 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 6. 5 / 10 X On a post-apocalyptic Earth, a wizard and his faire folk comrades fight an evil wizard who's using technology in his bid for conquest. Director: Ralph Bakshi Stars: Bob Holt, Jesse Welles, Richard Romanus Drama Sci-Fi 8. 2 / 10 A guide leads two men through an area known as the Zone to find a room that grants wishes. Andrei Tarkovsky Alisa Freyndlikh, Aleksandr Kaydanovskiy, Anatoliy Solonitsyn Comedy Crime 7. 5 / 10 After being released from prison, Billy is set to visit his parents with his wife, whom he does not actually have. This provokes Billy to act out, as he kidnaps a girl and forces her to act as his wife for the visit. Vincent Gallo Vincent Gallo, Christina Ricci, Ben Gazzara A man seeks answers about life, death, and the existence of God as he plays chess against the Grim Reaper during the Black Plague. Ingmar Bergman Max von Sydow, Gunnar Björnstrand, Bengt Ekerot Biography History The life, times and afflictions of the fifteenth-century Russian iconographer St. Andrei Rublev. Anatoliy Solonitsyn, Ivan Lapikov, Nikolay Grinko Action In Medieval Japan, an elderly warlord retires, handing over his empire to his three sons. However, he vastly underestimates how the new-found power will corrupt them and cause them to turn on each him. Akira Kurosawa Tatsuya Nakadai, Akira Terao, Jinpachi Nezu Thriller 8. 1 / 10 In a decrepit South American village, four men are hired to transport an urgent nitroglycerine shipment without the equipment that would make it safe. Henri-Georges Clouzot Yves Montand, Charles Vanel, Peter van Eyck A nurse is put in charge of a mute actress and finds that their personae are melding together. Bibi Andersson, Liv Ullmann, Margaretha Krook An Irish rogue wins the heart of a rich widow and assumes her dead husband's aristocratic position in 18th-century England. Stanley Kubrick Ryan O'Neal, Marisa Berenson, Patrick Magee 8. 7 / 10 When a ronin requesting seppuku at a feudal lord's palace is told of the brutal suicide of another ronin who previously visited, he reveals how their pasts are intertwined - and in doing so challenges the clan's integrity. Masaki Kobayashi Akira Ishihama, Shima Iwashita 8. 3 / 10 A bureaucrat tries to find a meaning in his life after he discovers he has terminal cancer. Takashi Shimura, Nobuo Kaneko, Shin'ichi Himori Mystery The rape of a bride and the murder of her samurai husband are recalled from the perspectives of a bandit, the bride, the samurai's ghost and a woodcutter. Toshirô Mifune, Machiko Kyô, Masayuki Mori Edit Storyline The feature film directed by Elem Klimov, shot in the genre of military drama. The action takes place on the territory of Belarus in 1943. In the center of the story is a Belarusian boy, who witnesses the horrors of the Nazi punitive action, turning from a cheerful teenager into a gray-haired old man for two days. Written by Peter-Patrick76 () Plot Summary Add Synopsis Details Release Date: 17 October 1985 (Hungary) See more  » Also Known As: Come and See Box Office Cumulative Worldwide Gross: $96, 908 See more on IMDbPro  » Company Credits Technical Specs Runtime: 142 min 105 min (heavily cut) See full technical specs  » Did You Know? Trivia The film's literal English translation from the Russian wording "Idi i smotri" is "Go and look" but the film is more commonly known in English as "Come and See" instead. See more » Goofs Many of the vehicles seen in this film are not the German standard Opel-Blitz truck nor the Kubelwagen car. Instead they are clearly post-World War II Soviet vehicles with slapped-on German Army markings. See more » Connections Referenced in Sardonicast: 1917, Come and See  (2020) See more » Soundtracks Blue Danube Written by Johann Strauss Jr. See more ».


Regia di Elemi Klimov. Un film Da vedere 1985 con Aleksej Kravsenko, Olga Mironova, Ljubomiras Lauviavicus. Titolo originale: Idi i smotri. Genere Guerra - URSS, 1985, durata 145 minuti. - MYmo net ro 3, 61 su 11 recensioni tra critica, pubblico e dizionari.  30 VOTA  11 SCRIVI VOTA SCRIVI  PREFERITI oppure Scrivi un commento Il tuo voto è stato registrato. Convalida adesso la tua preferenza. Ti abbiamo appena inviato un messaggio al tuo indirizzo di posta elettronica. Accedi alla tua posta e fai click sul link per convalidare il tuo commento. Chiudi La tua preferenza è stata registrata. Grazie. Un film antimilitarista ambientato nel 1943 nella Bielorussia invasa dai tedeschi. Una storia che racconta la guerra, i genocidi, l'orrore e lo strazio senza risparmiarsi. 3, 61 /5 MYMOVIES 3, 00      PUBBLICO 4, 22      CONSIGLIATO SÌ.

COME AND SEE, with its documentary approach to storytelling, puts the viewer right in the middle of unrelenting horror; drags us, kicking and screaming, from one nightmare scenario to another. When our young hero gets shellshocked, we voyeurs are likewise shellshocked- and the depiction of shellshock has never, as far as I know, been so realistically conveyed. (We've seen it to a lesser degree SINCE, in movies like SAVING PRIVATE RYAN, but never, to my knowledge, has it been handled so believably nor so uncompromisingly: the use of drifting, almost dreamlike, camera-work and uncomfortably muffled sound effects and music, combine to give us the impression WE have been shellshocked. One of the great strengths of this part of the film is its DURATION: it's not just done for a few minutes to get the idea across and then dumped: it drags on the way it would in Real Life, for fully a third of the movie.) If you have the stomach for some in-your-face Real World horror, I suggest you COME AND SEE.

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Dono e spreco: due input abbondanti in natura che, se combinati in modo efficiente, possono risolvere il problema di due povertà: quella materiale e quella di ricchezza e di senso. Da Wikipedia, l'enciclopedia libera. Va' e vedi Aleksej Kravčenko in una scena del film Titolo originale Иди и смотри Lingua originale russo, tedesco, bielorusso Paese di produzione Unione Sovietica Anno 1985 Durata 145 min Dati tecnici B/N e a colori Genere drammatico, guerra Regia Elem Klimov Soggetto Ales' Adamovič Sceneggiatura Ales' Adamovič, Elem Klimov Fotografia Aleksej Rodionov Montaggio Valerija Belova Musiche Oleg Jančenko Interpreti e personaggi Aleksei Kravchenko: Florya Gaishun Olga Mironova: Glasha Liubomiras Laucevičius: Kosač Vladas Bagdonas: Roubej Doppiatori italiani Gianni Bersanetti: Florya Gaishun Michele Kalamera: Kosač Saverio Moriones: Roubej Va' e vedi ( Idi i smotri) è un film del 1985 diretto da Elem Klimov, presentato fuori concorso al Festival di Cannes e premiato in Unione Sovietica per la colonna sonora scritta da Oleg Jančenko. «Il titolo è una citazione dell' Apocalisse [ 6, 1. 3. 5. 7]». [1] Nel 2017, alla 74ª Mostra internazionale d'arte cinematografica di Venezia, il film ha vinto il premio Venezia Classici per il miglior film restaurato. Trama [ modifica | modifica wikitesto] 1943, nella Bielorussia occupata dalle truppe tedesche [2], tra i villaggi circondati dalle foreste di betulle, ai margini delle grandi paludi. Fliora è un adolescente. A dispetto delle preoccupazioni della madre, intende aggregarsi ai partigiani. Scavando nella palude si procura finalmente un fucile e si unisce alle brigate nella foresta, dove però viene deriso e sfruttato per lavori di corvé. Incontra anche Glasha, una coetanea sfuggita alla deportazione: la ragazza è fermamente decisa a vivere e ad assaporare le gioie dell'amore e della crescita. Mentre i partigiani si avviano ad affrontare il nemico, Fliora viene lasciato indietro, a causa della sua inesperienza, ritrovandosi solo e sbandato nella foresta con Glasha. La ragazza tenta un approccio con lui, che la respinge, sentendosi imbarazzato e frustrato dal rifiuto ottenuto dai partigiani. Vengono interrotti dall'inizio dei combattimenti: il passaggio di un bombardiere tedesco precede la discesa di un plotone di paracadutisti e contemporaneamente inizia un intenso fuoco di sbarramento da parte dell' artiglieria. Traumatizzati dalle esplosioni, riescono a non farsi trovare dai paracadutisti appena atterrati e riparano in una capanna di fortuna dove, durante la notte, Fliora invita Glasha dalla sua famiglia, che sta lì vicino. Arrivati al villaggio, lo trovano vuoto e tragicamente scoprono che i tedeschi vi sono già passati, uccidendo molta gente. Fliora, sconvolto e delirante per il senso di colpa, si getta nella palude alla ricerca della madre e delle piccole sorelle, mentre Glasha cerca vanamente di farlo riprendere. Raggiunti i sopravvissuti, rifugiatisi in mezzo alle paludi, Fliora scopre che i suoi familiari sono morti e viene abbandonato anche da Glaisha, spaventata da lui. Fliora, per redimersi, si avventura nelle campagne costantemente sorvolate dal bombardiere tedesco, alla ricerca di cibo per i rifugiati, insieme a tre sbandati muniti di un fucile ciascuno. Dopo che due di loro muoiono in un campo minato, i superstiti requisiscono una mucca, ma sono impossibilitati a muoversi a causa dei combattimenti che non cessano nemmeno di notte. In mezzo a due fuochi, anche l'ultimo uomo e la mucca muoiono colpiti dai proiettili vaganti. All'alba Fliora, rimasto solo e sperduto nella nebbia, incontra un vecchio contadino che lo invita a nascondere il fucile e a seguirlo nella sua casa, mentre dalla nebbia emerge una colonna di camion tedeschi. I soldati tedeschi, appoggiati da un reparto di SS [3], rastrellano il villaggio, catturano gli uomini abili al lavoro, violentano le ragazze giovani, rinchiudono gli anziani, le donne ed i bambini in un fienile e vi danno fuoco. Fliora assiste terrorizzato ed impotente a questi eventi, udendo le grida degli abitanti del villaggio che vengono bruciati vivi, finché non sviene in preda al dolore. Così facendo scampa al rastrellamento, perché creduto morto, quindi scopre che il reparto tedesco è stato attaccato lungo la strada e i superstiti fatti prigionieri dai partigiani. Fliora recupera il suo fucile e tra i feriti rivede Glasha, ancora sotto shock dopo essere stata abusata dai soldati. I tedeschi e i loro collaborazionisti vengono passati per le armi dopo un processo sommario. I partigiani ripartono mentre Fliora, in un impeto di rabbia, riesce finalmente a sparare e lo fa con odio e accanimento assoluto contro un ritratto di Hitler. Ad ogni colpo di fucile, vengono mostrate le atrocità e le conquiste del dittatore nella guerra, che si riavvolgono all'indietro. L'ultima immagine, mostra un Hitler neonato in braccio alla madre. Fliora in un primo momento sembra sul punto di sparare, ma poi abbassa lentamente il fucile e la sua espressione da feroce, diventa triste e commiserevole. Liberatosi dallo shock dell'orrore cui ha assistito e recuperato il discernimento, Fliora corre per unirsi alla colonna di partigiani. Produzione [ modifica | modifica wikitesto] Sceneggiatura [ modifica | modifica wikitesto] Il massacro compiuto dai tedeschi nel film, richiama quello compiuto dalla Brigata Dirlewanger nel villaggio di Chatyn' [4]. Riconoscimenti [ modifica | modifica wikitesto] 1985 - Festival di Mosca Gran Premio Premio FIPRESCI 2017 - Mostra internazionale d'arte cinematografica di Venezia Premio Venezia Classici per il miglior film restaurato Curiosità [ modifica | modifica wikitesto] La presenza del pericolo che avvolge Fliora nel suo percorso è rappresentata da un aereo da ricognizione (una cicogna) che costantemente vola sopra di lui e da una vera cicogna che senza volare si aggira nella foresta. Note [ modifica | modifica wikitesto] Bibliografia [ modifica | modifica wikitesto] Salmaggi e Pallavisini, La seconda guerra mondiale, Mondadori, 1989, ISBN   88-04-39248-7. Voci correlate [ modifica | modifica wikitesto] Film sull'Olocausto Bambini dell'Olocausto Operazione Barbarossa Consiglio Centrale Bielorusso Einsatzgruppen Resistenza bielorussa Apocalisse di Giovanni#Filmografia sull'argomento Collegamenti esterni [ modifica | modifica wikitesto] ( EN) Va' e vedi, su Internet Movie Database, ( EN) Va' e vedi, su AllMovie, All Media Network. ( EN) Va' e vedi, su Rotten Tomatoes, Flixster Inc. ( EN,  ES) Va' e vedi, su FilmAffinity. ( EN) Va' e vedi, su, CBS Interactive Inc.

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Free Va' e vedic. Early Vedic period Geographical range Indian subcontinent Period Bronze Age India Dates c.  1500  – c.  1100 BCE Preceded by Indus Valley Civilisation Followed by Late Vedic period, Kuru Kingdom, Panchala, Videha Late Vedic period Geographical range Indian subcontinent Period Iron Age India Dates c.  1100  – c.  500 BCE Preceded by Early Vedic culture Followed by Haryanka dynasty, Mahajanapadas Outline of South Asian history Palaeolithic (2, 500, 000–250, 000 BC) Madrasian Culture Soanian Culture Neolithic (10, 800–3300 BC) Bhirrana Culture (7570–6200 BC) Mehrgarh Culture (7000–3300 BC) Edakkal Culture (5000–3000 BC) Chalcolithic (3500–1500 BC) Anarta tradition (c. 3950–1900 BC) Ahar-Banas Culture (3000–1500 BC) Pandu Culture (1600–1500 BC) Malwa Culture (1600–1300 BC) Jorwe Culture (1400–700 BC) Bronze Age (3300–1300 BC) Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BC)  – Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BC)  – Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BC)  – Late Harappan Culture (1900–1300 BC) Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BC)  – Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (2000–1600 BC)  – Swat culture (1600–500 BC) Iron Age (1500–200 BC) Vedic Civilisation (1500–500 BC)  – Janapadas (1500–600 BC)  – Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BC)  – Painted Grey Ware culture (1200–600 BC)  – Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BC) Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BC) Haryanka Dynasty (684–424 BC) Three Crowned Kingdoms (c. 600 BC – AD 1600) Maha Janapadas (c. 600–300 BC) Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC) Ror Dynasty (450 BC – AD 489) Shaishunaga Dynasty (424–345 BC) Nanda Empire (380–321 BC) Macedonian Empire (330–323 BC) Maurya Empire (321–184 BC) Seleucid India (312–303 BC) Pandya Empire (c. 300 BC – AD 1345) Chera Kingdom (c. 300 BC – AD 1102) Chola Empire (c. 300 BC – AD 1279) Pallava Empire (c. 250 BC – AD 800) Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire (c. 250 BC – c. 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It gets its name from the Vedas, which are liturgical texts containing details of life during this period that have been interpreted to be historical [1] and constitute the primary sources for understanding the period. These documents, alongside the corresponding archaeological record, allow for the evolution of the Vedic culture to be traced and inferred. [2] The Vedas were composed and orally transmitted with precision by speakers of an Old Indo-Aryan language who had migrated into the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent early in this period. The Vedic society was patriarchal and patrilineal. Early Vedic Aryans were a Late Bronze Age society centred in the Punjab, organised into tribes rather than kingdoms, and primarily sustained by a pastoral way of life. Around c.  1200 –1000 BCE, Vedic Aryans spread eastward to the fertile western Ganges Plain and adopted iron tools which allowed for clearing of forest and the adoption of a more settled, agricultural way of life. The second half of the Vedic period was characterised by the emergence of towns, kingdoms, and a complex social differentiation distinctive to India, [2] and the Kuru Kingdom 's codification of orthodox sacrificial ritual. [3] [4] During this time, the central Ganges Plain was dominated by a related but non-Vedic Indo-Aryan culture. The end of the Vedic period witnessed the rise of true cities and large states (called mahajanapadas) as well as śramaṇa movements (including Jainism and Buddhism) which challenged the Vedic orthodoxy. [5] The Vedic period saw the emergence of a hierarchy of social classes that would remain influential. Vedic religion developed into Brahmanical orthodoxy, and around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of " Hindu synthesis ". [6] Archaeological cultures identified with phases of Vedic material culture include the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture, the Gandhara grave culture, the Black and red ware culture and the Painted Grey Ware culture. [7] History [ edit] Origins [ edit] The commonly accepted period of earlier Vedic age is dated back to the second millennium BCE. [8] After the collapse of the Indus Valley Civilisation, which ended c. 1900 BCE, [9] [10] groups of Indo-Aryan peoples migrated into north-western India and started to inhabit the northern Indus Valley. [11] The Indo-Aryans were a branch of the Indo-Iranians, which—according to the most widespread hypothesis—originated in the Andronovo culture [12] in the Bactria - Margiana area, in present northern Afghanistan. [13] [note 1] Some writers and archaeologists have opposed the notion of a migration of Indo-Aryans into India. [20] Edwin Bryant and Laurie Patton used the term "Indo-Aryan Controversy" for an oversight of the Indo-Aryan Migration theory, and some of its opponents. [21] These ideas are outside the academic mainstream. [note 2] Mallory and Adams note that two types of models "enjoy significant international currency" as to the Indo-European homeland, namely the Anatolian hypothesis, and a migration out of the Eurasian steppes. [25] According to Upinder Singh, "The original homeland of the Indo-Europeans and Indo-Aryans is the subject of continuing debate among philologists, linguists, historians, archaeologists and others. The dominant view is that the Indo-Aryans came to the subcontinent as immigrants. Another view, advocated mainly by some Indian scholars, is that they were indigenous to the subcontinent. " [26] The knowledge about the Aryans comes mostly from the Rigveda - samhita, [27] i. e. the oldest layer of the Vedas, which was composed c. 1500–1200 BCE. [28] [29] [13] They brought with them their distinctive religious traditions and practices. [30] The Vedic beliefs and practices of the pre-classical era were closely related to the hypothesised Proto-Indo-European religion, [31] and the Indo-Iranian religion. [32] According to Anthony, the Old Indic religion probably emerged among Indo-European immigrants in the contact zone between the Zeravshan River (present-day Uzbekistan) and (present-day) Iran. [33] It was "a syncretic mixture of old Central Asian and new Indo-European elements", [33] which borrowed "distinctive religious beliefs and practices" [34] from the Bactria–Margiana culture. [34] [note 3] Early Vedic period (c. 1500 – c. 1200 BCE) [ edit] The Rigveda contains accounts of conflicts between the Aryas and the Dasas and Dasyus. It describes Dasas and Dasyus as people who do not perform sacrifices ( akratu) or obey the commandments of gods ( avrata). Their speech is described as mridhra which could variously mean soft, uncouth, hostile, scornful or abusive. Other adjectives which describe their physical appearance are subject to many interpretations. However, some modern scholars such as Asko Parpola connect the Dasas and Dasyus to Iranian tribes Dahae and Dahyu and believe that Dasas and Dasyus were early Indo-Aryan immigrants who arrived into the subcontinent before the Vedic Aryans. [36] [37] Accounts of military conflicts between the various tribes of Vedic Aryans are also described in the Rigveda. Most notable of such conflicts was the Battle of Ten Kings, which took place on the banks of the river Parushni (modern day Ravi). [note 4] The battle was fought between the tribe Bharatas, led by their chief Sudas, against a confederation of ten tribes. [40] The Bharatas lived around the upper regions of the river Saraswati, while the Purus, their western neighbours, lived along the lower regions of Saraswati. The other tribes dwelt north-west of the Bharatas in the region of Punjab. [41] Division of the waters of Ravi could have been a reason for the war. [42] [ unreliable source? ] The confederation of tribes tried to inundate the Bharatas by opening the embankments of Ravi, yet Sudas emerged victorious in the Battle of Ten Kings. [43] Purukutsa, the chief of the Purus, was killed in the battle and the Bharatas and the Purus merged into a new tribe, the Kuru, after the war. [41] Later Vedic period (c. 1100 – c. 500 BCE) [ edit] After the 12th century BCE, as the Rigveda had taken its final form, the Vedic society, which is associated with the Kuru-Pancala region but were not the only Indo-Aryan people in northern India, [44] transitioned from semi-nomadic life to settled agriculture in north-western India. [43] Possession of horses remained an important priority of Vedic leaders and a remnant of the nomadic lifestyle, [45] resulting in trade routes beyond the Hindu Kush to maintain this supply as horses needed for cavalry and sacrifice could not be bred in India. [46] The Gangetic plains had remained out of bounds to the Vedic tribes because of thick forest cover. After 1000 BCE, the use of iron axes and ploughs became widespread and the jungles could be cleared with ease. This enabled the Vedic Aryans to extend their settlements into the western area of the Ganga-Yamuna Doab. [47] Many of the old tribes coalesced to form larger political units. [48] The Vedic religion was further developed with the emergence of the Kuru kingdom, systematising its religious literature and developing the Śrauta ritual. [49] [50] [51] It is associated with the Painted Grey Ware culture (c. 1200-600 BCE), which did not expand east of the Ganga-Yamnuya Doab. [44] It differed from the related, yet markedly different, culture of the Central Ganges region, which was associated with the Northern Black Polished Ware and the Mahajanapadas of Kosala and Magadha. [52] In this period the varna system emerged, state Kulke and Rothermund, [53] which in this stage of Indian history were a "hierarchical order of estates which reflected a division of labor among various social classes". The Vedic period estates were four: Brahmin priests and warrior nobility stood on top, free peasants and traders were the third, and slaves, labourers and artisans, many belonging to the indigenous people, were the fourth. [54] [55] [56] This was a period where agriculture, metal, and commodity production, as well as trade, greatly expanded, [57] and the Vedic era texts including the early Upanishads and many Sutras important to later Hindu culture were completed. [58] The Kuru Kingdom, the earliest Vedic "state", was formed by a "super-tribe" which joined several tribes in a new unit. To govern this state, Vedic hymns were collected and transcribed, and new rituals were developed, which formed the now orthodox Śrauta rituals. [59] Two key figures in this process of the development of the Kuru state were the king Parikshit and his successor Janamejaya, transforming this realm into the dominant political and cultural power of northern Iron Age India. [49] The most well-known of the new religious sacrifices that arose in this period were the Ashvamedha (horse sacrifice). [60] This sacrifice involved setting a consecrated horse free to roam the kingdoms for a year. The horse was followed by a chosen band of warriors. The kingdoms and chiefdoms in which the horse wandered had to pay homage or prepare to battle the king to whom the horse belonged. This sacrifice put considerable pressure on inter-state relations in this era. [60] This period saw also the beginning of the social stratification by the use of varna, the division of Vedic society in Kshatriya, Brahmins, Vaishya and Shudra. [59] The Kuru kingdom declined after its defeat by the non-Vedic Salva tribe, and the political centre of Vedic culture shifted east, into the Panchala kingdom on the Ganges, under King Keśin Dālbhya (approximately between 900 and 750 BCE). [49] Later, in the 8th or 7th century BCE, the kingdom of Videha emerged as a political centre farther to the East, in what is today northern Bihar of India and southeastern Nepal, reaching its prominence under the king Janaka, whose court provided patronage for Brahmin sages and philosophers such as Yajnavalkya, Uddalaka Aruni, and Gargi Vachaknavi; [7] Panchala also remained prominent during this period, under its king Pravahana Jaivali. [61] Towards urbanisation [ edit] By the 6th century BCE, the political units consolidated into large kingdoms called Mahajanapadas. The process of urbanisation had begun in these kingdoms, commerce and travel flourished, even regions separated by large distances became easy to access. [62] Anga, a small kingdom to the east of Magadha (on the door step of modern-day West Bengal), formed the eastern boundary of the Vedic culture. [63] Yadavas expanded towards the south and settled in Mathura. To the south of their kingdom was Vatsa which was governed from its capital Kausambi. The Narmada River and parts of North Western Deccan formed the southern limits. [64] [65] The newly formed states struggled for supremacy and started displaying imperial ambitions. [66] The end of the Vedic period is marked by linguistic, cultural and political changes. The grammar of Pāṇini marks a final apex in the codification of Sutra texts, and at the same time the beginning of Classical Sanskrit. [67] The invasion of Darius I of the Indus valley in the early 6th century BCE marks the beginning of outside influence, continued in the kingdoms of the Indo-Greeks. [68] Meanwhile, in the Kosala-Magadha region, the shramana movements (including Jainism and Buddhism) objected the self-imposed authority and orthodoxy of the intruding Brahmins and their Vedic scriptures and ritual. [69] [5] According to Bronkhorst, the sramana culture arose in "greater Magadha, " which was Indo-European, but not Vedic. In this culture, kshatriyas were placed higher than Brahmins, and it rejected Vedic authority and rituals. [70] [71] Culture [ edit] Ancient history Preceded by prehistory Near East Sumer   · Egypt   · Elam   · Akkad   · Assyria   · Babylonia   · Mitanni   · Hittites   · Sea Peoples   · Anatolia   · Israel and Judah   · Arabia   · Berbers   · Phoenicia   · Persia Europe Minoans   · Greece   · Illyrians   · Nuragic   · Tartessos   · Celts   · Germanics   · Etruscans   · Rome   · Slavs   · Daco-Thracians Eurasian Steppe Proto-Indo-Europeans   · Afanasievo   · Indo-Iranians   · Scythia   · Tocharians   · Huns   · Xionites   · Turks East Asia China   · Japan   · Korea   · Mongolia South Asia Indus Valley Civilisation   · Vedic period   · Mahajanapadas   · Nanda Empire   · Maurya Empire   · Sangam period   · Middle Kingdoms   · Gupta Empire Mississippi and Oasisamerica Adena   · Hopewell   · Mississippian   · Puebloans Mesoamerica Olmecs   · Epi-Olmec   · Zapotec   · Mixtec   · Maya   · Teotihuacan   · Toltec Empire Andes Norte Chico   · Sechin   · Chavín   · Paracas   · Nazca   · Moche   · Lima   · Tiwanaku   · Wari West Africa Dhar Tichitt   · Oualata   · Nok   · Senegambia   · Djenné-Djenno   · Bantu   · Ghana Empire Southeast Asia and Oceania Vietnam   · Austronesians   · Australia   · Polynesia   · Funan   · Tarumanagara See also History of the world   · Ancient maritime history Protohistory   · Axial Age   · Iron Age Historiography   · Ancient literature Ancient warfare   · Cradle of civilization Category Followed by Post-classical history v t e Society [ edit] While Vedic society was relatively egalitarian in the sense that a distinct hierarchy of socio-economic classes or castes was absent, [72] [73] the Vedic period saw the emergence of a hierarchy of social classes. [3] [4] Political hierarchy was determined by rank, where rajan stood at the top and dasi at the bottom. [73] The words Brahamana and Kshatriya occur in various family books of the Rigveda, but they are not associated with the term varna. The words Vaishya and Shudra are absent. Verses of the Rigveda, such as 3. 44-45, indicate the absence of strict social hierarchy and the existence of social mobility: [36] O, Indra, fond of soma, would you make me the protector of people, or would you make me a king, would you make me a sage who has drunk soma, would you impart to me endless wealth. The institution of marriage was important and different types of marriages— monogamy, polygyny and polyandry are mentioned in the Rigveda. Both women sages and female gods were known to Vedic Aryans. Women could choose their husbands and could remarry if their husbands died or disappeared. [73] The wife enjoyed a respectable position. [74] People consumed milk, milk products, grains, fruits, and vegetables. Meat eating is mentioned, however, cows are labelled aghnya (not to be killed). Clothes of cotton, wool and animal skin were worn. [73] Soma and sura were popular drinks in the Vedic society, of which soma was sanctified by religion. Flute ( vana), lute ( vina), harp, cymbals, and drums were the musical instruments played and a heptatonic scale was used. [74] Dancing, dramas, chariot racing, and gambling were other popular pastimes. [73] The emergence of monarchical states in the later Vedic age led to a distancing of the rajan from the people and the emergence of a varna hierarchy. The society was divided into four social groups— Brahmanas, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras. The later Vedic texts fixed social boundaries, roles, status and ritual purity for each of the groups. The Shatapatha Brahmana associates the Brahmana with purity of parentage, good conduct, glory, teaching or protecting people; Kshatriya with strength, fame, ruling, and warfare; Vaishya with material prosperity and production-related activities such as cattle rearing and agriculture; Shudras with the service of the higher varnas. The effects of Rajasuya sacrifice depended on the varna of the sacrificer. Rajasuya endowed Brahmana with lustre, Kshatriya with valour, Vaishya with procreative power and Shudra with stability. The hierarchy of the top three varnas is ambiguous in the later Vedic texts. Panchavamsha Brahmana and verse 13. 8. 3. 11 of the Shatapatha Brahmana place Kshatriya over Brahmana and Vaishya, whereas, verse 1. 1. 4. 12 places Brahmana and Vaishya over the Kshatriya and Shudra. The Purusha sukta visualised the four varnas as hierarchical, but inter-related parts of an organic whole. [75] Despite the increasing social stratification in the later Vedic times, hymns like Rigveda IX. 112 suggest some amount of social mobility: "I am a reciter of hymns, my father a physician, and my mother grinds (corn) with stones. We desire to obtain wealth in various actions. " [76] [77] Household became an important unit in the later Vedic age. The variety of households of the Vedic era gave way to an idealised household which was headed by a grihapati. The relations between husband and wife, father and son were hierarchically organised and the women were relegated to subordinate and docile roles. Polygyny was more common than polyandry and texts like Tattiriya Samhita indicate taboos around menstruating women. Various professions women took to are mentioned in the later Vedic texts. Women tended to cattle, milked cows, carded wool; were weavers, dyers, and corn grinders. Women warriors such as Vishphala, who lost a leg in battle, are mentioned. Two female philosophers are mentioned in the Upanishads. [78] Patrick Olivelle, in his translation of the Upanishads, writes that "the fact that these women are introduced without any attempt to justify or to explain how women could be engaged in theological matters suggests the relatively high social and religious position of at least women of some social strata during this period. " [79] Political organisation [ edit] Vedic weaponry Ancient Indian Antennae sword; Metalwork, 1500–500 BCE. Ancient Indian Ax Blade, 1500–1000 BCE. Early Vedic Aryans were organised into tribes rather than kingdoms. The chief of a tribe was called a rajan. The autonomy of the rajan was restricted by the tribal councils called sabha and samiti. The two bodies were, in part, responsible for the governance of the tribe. The rajan could not accede to the throne without their approval. The distinction between the two bodies is not clear. Arthur Llewellyn Basham, a noted historian and indologist, theorises that sabha was a meeting of great men in the tribe, whereas, samiti was a meeting of all free tribesmen. Some tribes had no hereditary chiefs and were directly governed by the tribal councils. Rajan had a rudimentary court which was attended by courtiers ( sabhasad) and chiefs of sects ( gramani). The main responsibility of the rajan was to protect the tribe. He was aided by several functionaries, including the purohita (chaplain), the senani (army chief), dutas (envoys) and spash (spies). [80] Purohita performed ceremonies and spells for success in war and prosperity in peace. [81] In the later Vedic period, the tribes had consolidated into small kingdoms, which had a capital and a rudimentary administrative system. [82] To aid in governing these new states, the kings and their Brahmin priests arranged Vedic hymns into collections and developed a new set of rituals (the now orthodox Śrauta rituals) to strengthen the emerging social hierarchy. [49] The rajan was seen as the custodian of social order and the protector of rashtra (polity). Hereditary kingship started emerging and competitions like chariot races, cattle raids, and games of dice, which previously decided who was worthy of becoming a king, became nominal. Rituals in this era exalted the status of the king over his people. He was occasionally referred to as samrat (supreme ruler). The rajan's increasing political power enabled him to gain greater control over the productive resources. The voluntary gift offering ( bali) became compulsory tribute; however, there was no organised system of taxation. Sabha and samiti are still mentioned in later Vedic texts, though, with the increasing power of the king, their influence declined. [83] By the end of the later Vedic age, different kinds of political systems such as monarchical states ( rajya), oligarchical states ( gana or sangha), and tribal principalities had emerged in India. [83] According to Michael Witzel 's analysis of the Kuru Kingdom, it can be characterized as the earliest Vedic "state", during the Middle Vedic Period. [49] [84] However, Robert Bellah observes that it is difficult to "pin down" whether the Kurus were a true "state" or a complex chiefdom, as the Kuru kings notably never adopted royal titles higher than "rājan, " which means "chief" rather than "king" in the Vedic context. [85] The Middle Vedic Period is also characterized by a lack of cities; Bellah compares this to early state formation in ancient Hawai'i and "very early Egypt, " which were "territorial states" rather than "city-states, " and thus "it was the court, not the city, that provided the center, and the court was often peripatetic. " [86] Romila Thapar characterizes Vedic-era state formation as being in a condition of "arrested development, " because local chiefs were relatively autonomous, and because surplus wealth that could have been directed towards state-building was instead used for the increasingly grandiose rituals that also served to structure social relations. [87] The period of the Upanishads, the final phase of the Vedic era, was approximately contemporaneous with a new wave of state formations, linked to the beginning of urbanization in the Ganges Valley: along with the growth of population and trade networks, these social and economic changes put pressure on older ways of life, setting the stage for the Upanishads and the subsequent sramana movements, [88] and the end of the Vedic Period, which was followed by the Mahajanapada period. According to George Erdosy, archaeological data for the period of period from 1000 to 600 BCE shows a two-tiered settlement pattern in the Ganges Valley, with some "modest central places, " suggestive of the existence of simple chiefdoms, with the Kurukshetra District itself displaying a more complex (albeit not yet urbanized) three-tiered hierarchy. [89] Subsequently, (after 600 BCE) there are four tiers of site sizes, including large towns and fortified cities, consistent with an urbanized state-level society. [90] Economy [ edit] Ceramic goblet from Navdatoli, Malwa, 1300 BCE. Economy in the Vedic period was sustained by a combination of pastoralism and agriculture. [74] There are references, in the Rigveda, to the leveling of fields, seed processing, and storage of grains in large jars. War bounty was also a major source of wealth. [73] Economic exchanges were conducted by gift giving, particularly to kings ( bali) and priests ( dana), and barter using cattle as a unit of currency. While gold is mentioned in some hymns, there is no indication of the use of coins. Metallurgy is not mentioned in the Rigveda, but the word ayas and instruments made from it such as razors, bangles, axes are mentioned. One verse mentions purification of ayas. Some scholars believe that ayas refers to iron and the words dham and karmara refer to iron-welders. [91] However, philological evidence indicates that ayas in the Rigveda refers only to copper and bronze, while iron or śyāma ayas, literally "black metal", first is mentioned in the post-Rigvedic Atharvaveda, [7] [49] and therefore the Early Vedic Period was a Bronze Age culture whereas the Late Vedic Period was an Iron Age culture. [ citation needed] The transition of Vedic society from semi-nomadic life to settled agriculture in the later Vedic age led to an increase in trade and competition for resources. [92] Agriculture dominated the economic activity along the Ganges valley during this period. [93] Agricultural operations grew in complexity and usage of iron implements ( krishna–ayas or shyama–ayas, literally black metal or dark metal) increased. Crops of wheat, rice, and barley were cultivated. Surplus production helped to support the centralised kingdoms that were emerging at this time. [49] New crafts and occupations such as carpentry, leather work, tanning, pottery, astrology, jewellery, dying, and winemaking arose. [94] Apart from copper, bronze, and gold, later Vedic texts also mention tin, lead, and silver. [95] Panis in some hymns refers to merchants, in others to stingy people who hid their wealth and did not perform Vedic sacrifices. Some scholars suggest that Panis were semitic traders, but the evidence for this is slim. [41] Professions of warriors, priests, cattle-rearers, farmers, hunters, barbers, vintners and crafts of chariot-making, cart-making, carpentry, metal working, tanning, making of bows, sewing, weaving, making mats of grass and reed are mentioned in the hymns of the Rigveda. Some of these might have needed full-time specialists. [91] There are references to boats and oceans. Book X of the Rigveda refers to both eastern and western oceans. Individual property ownership did not exist and clans as a whole enjoyed rights over lands and herds. Enslavement ( dasa, dasi) in the course of war or as a result of non-payment of debt is mentioned. However, slaves worked in households rather than production-related activities. [73] Religion [ edit] A steel engraving from the 1850s, which depicts the creative activities of Prajapati, a Vedic deity who presides over procreation and protection of life. Vedic religion [ edit] Texts considered to date to the Vedic period are mainly the four Vedas, but the Brahmanas, Aranyakas and the older Upanishads as well as the oldest Śrautasutras are also considered to be Vedic. The Vedas record the liturgy connected with the rituals and sacrifices performed by the 16 or 17 Śrauta priests and the purohitas. [ citation needed] The rishis, the composers of the hymns of the Rigveda, were considered inspired poets and seers (in post-Vedic times understood as "hearers" of an eternally existing Veda, Śrauta means "what is heard"). The mode of worship was the performance of sacrifices ( Yajna) which included the chanting of Rigvedic verses (see Vedic chant), singing of Samans and 'mumbling' of sacrificial mantras ( Yajus). Yajna involved sacrifice and sublimation of the havana sámagri (herbal preparations) in the fire accompanied by the chanting of the Vedic mantras. The sublime meaning of the word yajna is derived from the Sanskrit verb yaj, which has a three-fold meaning of worship of deities (devapujana), unity (saògatikaraña) and charity (dána). [96] An essential element was the sacrificial fire—the divine Agni —into which oblations were poured, as everything offered into the fire was believed to reach God. People prayed for abundance of rain, cattle, sons, long life and gaining 'heaven'. Vedic people believed in the transmigration of the soul, and the peepul tree and cow were sanctified by the time of the Atharvaveda. [97] Many of the concepts of Indian philosophy espoused later like Dharma, Karma etc. trace their root to the Vedas. [98] The main deities of the Vedic pantheon were Indra, Agni (the sacrificial fire), and Soma and some deities of social order such as Mitra – Varuna, Aryaman, Bhaga and Amsa, further nature deities such as Surya (the Sun), Vayu (the wind), and Prithivi (the earth). Goddesses included Ushas (the dawn), Prithvi, and Aditi (the mother of the Aditya gods or sometimes the cow). Rivers, especially Saraswati, were also considered goddesses. Deities were not viewed as all-powerful. The relationship between humans and the deity was one of transaction, with Agni (the sacrificial fire) taking the role of messenger between the two. Strong traces of a common Indo-Iranian religion remain visible, especially in the Soma cult and the fire worship, both of which are preserved in Zoroastrianism. Ethics in the Vedas are based on the concepts of Satya and Rta. Satya is the principle of integration rooted in the Absolute. [99] Whereas, Ṛta is the expression of Satya, which regulates and coordinates the operation of the universe and everything within it. [100] Conformity with Ṛta would enable progress whereas its violation would lead to punishment. Influence on Hinduism [ edit] Around the beginning of the Common Era, the Vedic tradition formed one of the main constituents of the " Hindu synthesis ". [6] [101] Vedic religion survived in the srayta ritual, whereas ascetic and devotional traditions like Yoga and Vedanta acknowledge the authority of the Vedas, but interpret the Vedic pantheon as a unitary view of the universe with 'God' (Brahman) seen as immanent and transcendent in the forms of Ishvara and Brahman. Later texts such as the Upanishads and epics, namely the Gita of Mahabharat, are essential parts of these later developments. Literature [ edit] The reconstruction of the history of Vedic India is based on text-internal details, but can be correlated to relevant archaeological details. Linguistically, the Vedic texts could be classified in five chronological strata: [7] Rigvedic text: The Rigveda is by far the most archaic of the Vedic texts preserved, and it retains many common Indo-Iranian elements, both in language and in content, that are not present in any other Vedic texts. Its time span likely corresponds to the Late Harappan culture, Gandhara Grave culture and Ochre Coloured Pottery culture. Mantra language texts: This period includes both the mantra and prose language of the Atharvaveda ( Paippalada and Shaunmkiya), the Rigveda Khilani, the Samaveda Samhita (containing some 75 mantras not in the Rigveda), and the mantras of the Yajurveda. Many of these texts are largely derived from the Rigveda, but have undergone certain changes, both by linguistic change and by reinterpretation. Conspicuous changes include change of vishva "all" by sarva, and the spread of the kuru- verbal stem (for Rigvedic krno-). This is the time of the early Iron Age in north-western India, corresponding to the Black and Red Ware (BRW) and Painted Grey Ware (PGW) cultures, and the early Kuru Kingdom, dating from c. the 12th to 11th century BCE. Samhita prose texts: This period marks the beginning of the collection and codification of a Vedic canon. An important linguistic change is the complete loss of the injunctive. The Brahmana part ('commentary' on mantras and ritual) of the Black Yajurveda (MS, KS, TS) belongs to this period. Archaeologically, the Painted Grey Ware (PGW) culture from c. 1000 or 900 BCE corresponds to the Kuru Kingdom and the subsequent eastward shift of the political centre from the Kurus to the Panchalas on the Ganges. Brahmana prose texts: The Brahmanas proper of the four Vedas belong to this period, as well as the Aranyakas, the oldest of the Upanishads ( BAU, ChU, JUB) and the oldest Śrautasutras ( BSS, VadhSS). In the east, Videha (N. Bihar and Nepal) is established as the third main political centre of the Vedic period. Sutra language texts: This is the last stratum of Vedic Sanskrit leading up to c. 500 BCE, comprising the bulk of the Śrauta and Grhya Sutras, and some Upanishads (e. g. KathU, MaitrU). Archaeology [ edit] Archaeological cultures identified with phases of Vedic material culture include the Ochre Coloured Pottery culture, the Gandhara Grave culture, the Black and red ware culture and the Painted Grey Ware culture. [7] Ochre coloured pottery culture was first found approximately between 1950-1951, in western Uttar Pradesh, in the Badaun and Bisjuar district [102] is thought that this culture was prominent during the latter half of the 2nd millennium, within the transition between the Indus Valley civilization and the end of Harrapan culture [103]. This pottery is typically created with wheel ware, and is ill-fired, to a fine to medium fabric, decorated with a red slip, and occasional black bands1. When this pottery was worked with, it often left an ochre color on the hands, most likely because of water-logging, bad firing, wind action, or a mixture of these factors [104]. This pottery was found all throughout the doab, most of it found in the Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, and Bulandshahr districts, but also existing outside these districts, extending north and south of Bahadrabad [105]. This pottery does however seem to exist within different time frames of popularity, ochre colored pottery seeming to occur in areas such as Rajasthan earlier than we see it in the doab, despite the doab being heavily associated with the culture [106]. Gandhara grave culture refers to the protohistoric cemeteries found in the Gandhara region, stretching all the way from Bajuar to the Indus [107]. These cemeteries seem to follow a set grave structure and “mortuary practice”, such as inflexed inhumation and cremation [108]. This culture is thought to occur in 3 stages: the lower, in which burials take place in masonry lined pits, the upper, in which urn burials and cremations are added, and the “surface” level, in which graves are covered with huge stone slabs [109]. In the lower stage, excavators found that these graves are typically 2-3 feet deep, and covered with stones on top [110]. After digging out the stones, skeletons were found facing southwest to northeast, with the head facing one direction, and the hands laying on top of one another [111]. Female skeletons were often found wearing hair pins and jewelry [112]. Pottery is greatly important to this culture, as pottery was often used as a “grave good”, being buried with the bodies of the dead [113]. Buried alongside the skeletons, we typically see various pots on top of the body, averaging at about 5 or less pieces of pottery per grave [114]. Within this culture we typically see 2 kinds of pottery: gray ware, or red ware [115]. Black and red ware culture was coined as a term in 1946 by Sir Mortimer Wheeler [116]. The pottery, as the name suggests, typically has a black rim/inside surface, and a red lower half on the outside of the piece [117]. Red-ware pottery tends to fall into 2 categories: offering stands, or cooking vessels [118]. Most of these pieces of pottery were open mouthed bowls that were burnished, painted, or slipped on one side, however, jars, pots, and dishes-on-stands have also been found in small quantities [119]. Black and red ware, and the surrounding culture, began its spread during the neolithic period and continues until the early medieval period in India, as well as being found in parts of West Asia and Egypt [120]. There are many theories about the process of its creation, the most popular being the use of an inverted firing technique, or a simultaneous oxidation and reduction firing [121]. One researcher however learned that these 2 theories are quite possibly misguided, as they were able to recreate black and red ware pottery through double firing, one stating “the characteristic colouration of the pottery cannot merely be achieved by inverted firing” [122]. Painted grey ware culture is a significant pottery style that has been linked to a group of people who settled in Sutlej, Ghagger, and the Upper Ganga/Yamuna Valleys, loosely classified with the early Aryans who migrated to India in the beginning of the Vedic period [123]. It’s also thought that the groups that introduced the painted grey ware culture also brought iron technology to the Indo-gangetic plains, making this pottery a momentous mark of the Northern Indian Iron age [124]. The style of grey-ware often includes clay wheel-thrown into a smooth texture, ash-grey in color, and often decorated with black ink, creating small circular patterns, sometimes spirals, swastikas, or sigmas [125]. Grey-ware pottery is almost exclusively drinking ware, and tends to have 3 different forms: narrow-waisted, tall drinking glasses, middle-sized drinking goblets, and drinking vases with outturned lips [126]. There was a distinct grey ware culture surrounding the establishment of the pottery, but while the culture is significant, grey ware has only made up 10-15% of found Vedic pottery, a majority of the pottery red ware, as grey ware pottery was seen as a “highly valued luxury” [127]. See also [ edit] History of India Historical Vedic religion Indus Valley Civilisation Vedanga Indigenous Aryans Notes [ edit] ^ The roots of this culture seem to go further back to the Sintashta culture, with funeral sacrifices which show close parallels to the sacrificial funeral rites of the Rigveda. [14] Around 1800–1600 BCE, the Indo-Aryans are believed to have split off from the Iranians [15] whereupon they were defeated and split into two groups by the Iranians, [16] who dominated the Central Eurasian steppe zone [17] and "chased them to the extremities of Central Eurasia. " [17] One of these Indo-Aryan groups would found the Mitanni kingdom in northern Syria (c. 1500–1300 BCE). [13] The other group were the Vedic people, who were pursued by the Iranians "across Iran into India. " [18] For an overview of the current relevant research, see: Michael Witzel (2001), "Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts", in Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies (EJVS), vol. 7–3, pp. 1–93. Shereen Ratnagar (2008), "The Aryan homeland debate in India", in P. L. Kohl, M. Kozelsky and N. Ben-Yehuda (edd. ), Selective remembrances: archaeology in the construction, commemoration, and consecration of national pasts, pp. 349–378. Suraj Bhan (2002), "Aryanization of the Indus Civilization" in K. N. Panikkar, T. J. Byres and U. Patnaik (edd. ), The Making of History, pp. 41–55. [19] ^ See: Bryant: "This does not mean that the Indigenous Aryan position is historically probable. The available evidence by no means denies the normative view —that of external Aryan origins and, if anything, favors it. " [22] Michael Witzel: "The 'revisionist project' certainly is not guided by the principles of critical theory but takes, time and again, recourse to pre-enlightenment beliefs in the authority of traditional religious texts such as the Purånas. In the end, it belongs, as has been pointed out earlier, to a different 'discourse' than that of historical and critical scholarship. In other words, it continues the writing of religious literature, under a contemporary, outwardly 'scientific' guise. Though the ones pursuing this project use dialectic methods quite effectively, they frequently also turn traditional Indian discussion methods and scholastic tricks to their advantage [... ] The revisionist and autochthonous project, then, should not be regarded as scholarly in the usual post-enlightenment sense of the word, but as an apologetic, ultimately religious undertaking aiming at proving the 'truth' of traditional texts and beliefs. Worse, it is, in many cases, not even scholastic scholarship at all but a political undertaking aiming at 'rewriting' history out of national pride or for the purpose of 'nation building'. " [23] In her review of Bryant's "The Indo-Aryan Controversy" Stephanie Jamison, Professor, Department of Asian Languages & Cultures, comments: ".. parallels between the Intelligent Design issue and the Indo-Aryan "controversy" are distressingly close. The Indo-Aryan controversy is a manufactured one with a non-scholarly agenda, and the tactics of its manufacturers are very close to those of the ID proponents mentioned above. However unwittingly and however high their aims, the two editors have sought to put a gloss of intellectual legitimacy, with a sense that real scientific questions are being debated, on what is essentially a religio-nationalistic attack on a scholarly consensus. " [24] ^ At least 383 non-Indo-European words were borrowed from this culture, including the god Indra and the ritual drink Soma, which according to Anthony was "probably borrowed from the BMAC religion. " [35] "Many of the qualities of Indo-Iranian god of might/victory, Verethraghna, were transferred to the adopted god Indra, who became the central deity of the developing Old Indic culture. Indra was the subject of 250 hymns, a quarter of the Rigveda. He was associated more than any other deity with Soma, a stimulant drug (perhaps derived from Ephedra) probably borrowed from the BMAC religion. His rise to prominence was a peculiar trait of the Old Indic speakers. " ^ According to Erdosy, this battle provided a prototype for the epic Mahabharata, [38] Hiltebeitel calls this idea a "particularly baffling fancy. " [39] References [ edit] ^ McClish, Mark; Olivelle, Patrick (2012), "Introduction", in M. McClish; P. Olivelle (eds. ), The Arthasastra: Selections from the Classic Indian Work on Statecraft, Hackett Publishing, p. xxiv, ISBN   1-60384-903-3: "Although the Vedas are essentially liturgical documents and increasingly mystical reflections on Vedic ritual, they are sufficiently rich and extensive to give us some understanding of what life was like at the time. The earliest of the Vedas, the Ṛgveda Saṃhitā, contains 1, 028 hymns, some of which may be as old as 1500 BCE. Because the Vedic texts are the primary way in which we can understand the period between the fall of the IVC (ca 1700) and the second wave of urbanization (600 BCE), we call the intervening era of South Asian history the 'Vedic Period. '" ^ a b Stein 2010, p. 50. ^ a b Witzel 1995, p. 3-5. ^ a b Samuel 2010, p. 49-52. ^ a b Flood 1996, p. 82. ^ a b Hiltebeitel 2002. ^ a b c d e Witzel 1989. ^ Pletcher, Kenneth (2010). The History of India. Britannica Educational Publishing. p. 60. ^ Witzel 1995, p. 3. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 41. ^ Floodl 1995, p. 30, 33-35. ^ Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 410-411. ^ a b c Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 454. ^ Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 375, 408–411. ^ Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 408. ^ Beckwith, 2009 & 33, 35. ^ a b Beckwith, 2009 & 33. ^ Beckwith, 2009 & 34. ^ Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007. ^ Bryant 2001. ^ Bryant & Patton 2005, p. 342. ^ Bryant, Edwin (2001), The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate, Oxford University Press, p. 7, ISBN   0-19-513777-9 ^ Witzel, Michael (2001), "Autochthonous Aryans? The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts" (PDF), Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies 7-3 (EJVS) 2001(1-115) ^ Jamison, Stephanie W. (2006). "The Indo-Aryan controversy: Evidence and inference in Indian history (Book review)" (PDF). Journal of Indo-European Studies. 34: 255–261. ^ Mallory & Adams 2006, p. 460-461. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 186. ^ Flood 1996, p. 31. ^ Flood 1996, p. 37. ^ Witzel 1995, p. 4. ^ Flood 1996, p. 30. ^ Woodard, Roger D. (18 August 2006). Indo-European Sacred Space: Vedic and Roman Cult. University of Illinois Press. pp. 242–. ISBN   978-0-252-09295-4. ^ Beckwith 2009. ^ a b Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 462. ^ a b Beckwith 2009, p. 32. ^ Anthony, The Horse, the Wheel and Language 2007, p. 454 f.. ^ a b & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 192. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, p. 38. ^ Erdosy 1995, p. 335. ^ Hiltebeitel 2001, p. 2, note 12. ^ Singh, Upinder (2008). A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century. Pearson Education India. p. 187. ^ a b c Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, p. 32. ^ Reddy 2011, p. 103. ^ a b Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 37–38. ^ a b Samuel 2010, p. 49. ^ Tignor, Robert L. (2014). Worlds together, worlds apart: a history of the world from the beginnings of humankind to the present (fourth ed. ). New York: W. W. Norton & Company. ISBN   9780393922073. OCLC   854609153. ^ Kaushik, Roy (2013). Military manpower, armies and warfare in South Asia. London: Pickering & Chatto. ISBN   9781848932920. OCLC   827268432. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 37–39. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 200. ^ a b c d e f g h Witzel 1995. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 48-51, 61-93. ^ Hiltebeitel 2007, p. 8-10. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 49-50. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 39–40. ^ Avari, Burjor (2016). India: The Ancient Past: A History of the Indian Subcontinent from C. 7000 BCE to CE 1200. Routledge. p. 89. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 39-41. ^ Sharma, Ram Sharan (1990), Śūdras in Ancient India: A Social History of the Lower Order Down to Circa A. D. 600, Motilal Banarsidass, p. 33, ISBN   978-81-208-0706-8 ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, pp. 41–43. ^ Witzel 1995, p. 2-8. ^ a b Samuel 2010, p. 48-56. ^ a b Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, p. 42. ^ H. C. Raychaudhuri (1972), Political History of Ancient India, Calcutta: University of Calcutta, p. 67–68. ^ Olivelle 1998, pp. xxviii–xxix. ^ Basham 208, p. 40. ^ Basham 208, p. 41. ^ Majumdar 1998, p. 65. ^ Majumdar 1998, p. 66. ^ Fortson 2011, p. 208. ^ Sen 1999, pp. 117–120. ^ Samuel 2010, p. 48-51; ch. 3. ^ Bronkhorst 2007. ^ Long 2013, p. chapter II. ^ Staal 2008, p. 54. ^ a b c d e f g & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 191. ^ a b c Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, p. 35. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, pp. 201–203. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 204. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxvi. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, pp. 204–206. ^ Olivelle 1998, p. xxxvi. ^ Majumdar 1977, p. 45. ^ Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, pp. 33–34. ^ Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, p. 41. ^ a b & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, pp. 200–201. ^ Witzel's study is furthermore cited by Alf Hiltebeitel, Dharma: Its Early History in Law, Religion, and Narrative, Oxford University Press, 2011, p. 57 ( online); Proferes, Theodore (2003), "Kuru kings, Tura Kavaseya and the -tvaya Gerund", in Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, vol. 66 (2), pp. 210–219 ( online). ^ Bellah, Robert N. Religion in Human Evolution (Harvard University Press, 2011), p. 491 f. ( online). ^ Bellah 2011, 697-98: citing the terminology of Bruce Trigger, Understanding Early Civilizations ( online). ^ Cited by Bellah 2011, p. 698 f. ( online). ^ Bellah 2011, p. 509, citing Patrick Olivelle's introductory remarks to his translation of the Upanishads ( online). ^ Erdosy, George. "The prelude to urbanization: ethnicity and the rise of Late Vedic chiefdoms, " in The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, ed. F. R. Allchin (Cambridge University Press, 1995), pp. 75–98 ( online). ^ Erdosy, George. "City states of North India and Pakistan at the time of the Buddha, " in The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States, ed. Allchin (Cambridge University Press, 1995), p. 99–122 ( online). ^ a b & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, p. 190. ^ Kulke & Rothermund 1998, p. 40. ^ Olivelle, 1998 & xxvii. ^ & Upinder Singh, A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India 2008, pp. 198–199. ^ Basham, The Wonder that was India 2008, pp. 42–43. ^ Nigal, S. G. Axiological Approach to the Vedas. Northern Book Centre, 1986. P. 81. ISBN   81-85119-18-X. ^ Singhal, K. C; Gupta, Roshan. The Ancient History of India, Vedic Period: A New Interpretation. Atlantic Publishers and Distributors. ISBN   8126902868. 150-151. ^ *Day, Terence P. (1982). The Conception of Punishment in Early Indian Literature. Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press. 42-45. ISBN   0-919812-15-5. ^ Krishnananda. Swami. A Short History of Religious and Philosophic Thought in India, Divine Life Society. p. 21 ^ Holdrege (2004:215). Panikkar (2001:350-351) remarks: " Ṛta is the ultimate foundation of everything; it is "the supreme", although this is not to be understood in a static sense. [... ] It is the expression of the primordial dynamism that is inherent in everything.... " ^ Stephanie W. Jamison and Michael Witzel in Arvind Sharma, editor, The Study of Hinduism. University of South Carolina Press, 2003, page 65: "... to call this period Vedic Hinduism is a contradiction in terms since Vedic religion is very different from what we generally call Hindu religion - at least as much as Old Hebrew religion is from mediaeval and modern Christian religion. However, Vedic religion is treatable as a predecessor of Hinduism. " ^ Singh, Upinder “A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century”, Pearson, page 218, 2008. ^ Darvill, Timothy “ The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Archeology” Oxford University Press, 2nd edition, 2009. ^ Dani, Ahmad Hasan, “Gandhara Grave Complex in West Pakistan” University of Peshawar, Pakistan, page 99, 15th August, 1966. ^ Zahir, Muhammad, ” The Gandhara Grave Culture: New Perspectives on Protohistoric Cementaries in Northern and Northwestern Pakistan”, pages 274-293, 15th of April, 2016. ^ Mishra, Anup, “Chalcolithic Black and Red Ware of Balathal, Upaidur, Rajasthan: A Study”, Indian History Congress, volume 68, pages 1322-1339, 2007. ^ Lucas, Alfred, ”Notes on work done on some of the objects from the tomb of Tutankhamun”, The Griffith Institute, 6th of October, 1943. ^ Hedge, K. T. M, “The Painted Grey Ware of India”, Cambridge University Press, volume 49, issue 195, pages 187-190, 2nd of January, 2015 ^ Hedge, K. M, “The Painted Grey Ware of India”, Cambridge University Press, volume 49, issue 195, pages 187-190, 2nd of January, 2015. ^ Lal, B. B, ” The Painted Grey Ware Culture of the Iron Age” Unesco, pages 412-419, 1996. Sources [ edit] Anthony, David W. (2007), The Horse, the Wheel and Language. How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World, Princeton: Princeton University Press Basham, A. (2008) [first published 1954 by Sidgwick and Jackson], The Wonder that was India: A survey of the history and culture of the Indian sub-continent before the coming of the Muslims, Scholarly Publishing Office, University of Michigan, ISBN   978-1-59740-599-7 Bronkhorst, Johannes (2007), Greater Magadha: Studies in the Culture of Early India, BRILL Bryant, Edwin (2001), The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture: The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate, New York: Oxford University Press Bryant, Edwin; Patton, Laurie, eds. 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(1999), Ancient Indian History And Civilization, New Age International, ISBN   978-81-224-1198-0 Singh, Upinder (2008), A History of Ancient and Early Mediaeval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century, Pearson Education India, ISBN   978-81-317-1120-0 Staal, Frits (2008), Discovering the Vedas: Origins, Mantras, Rituals, Insights, Penguin Books India, ISBN   978-0-14-309986-4 Stein, Burton (2010), A History of India, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN   978-1-4443-2351-1 Winternitz, Moriz; Sarma, Vuppala Srinivasa (1981), A history of Indian literature: Introduction, Veda, epics, purānas and tantras, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN   978-81-208-0264-3 Witzel, Michael (1989), "Tracing the Vedic dialects", Dialectes dans les litteratures Indo-Aryennes ed. Caillat, Paris, 97–265. Witzel, Michael (1995), "Early Sanskritization. Origins and Development of the Kuru State. " (PDF), Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies, 1 (4): 1–26, archived from the original (PDF) on 11 June 2007, retrieved 20 February 2012 Further reading [ edit] Lokmanya Bal Gangadhar Tilak, The Arctic Home in the Vedas, Messrs Tilak Bros., 1903. R. Majumdar and A. Pusalker, eds. The History and Culture of the Indian People. Volume I, The Vedic age. Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Bombay 1951. R. Majumdar et al. An Advanced History of India, MacMillan, 1967.

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Frequently Asked Questions Collapse all What age must I be before I can apply for my permit in Virginia? You must be at least 15 ½ to apply for a learner’s permit. What documents will I be required to have when I go to apply for my license in Virginia? Use Virginia’s interactive Document Guide to determine which documents to bring. You’ll want to be sure to bring: Proof of Identity 1 proof of identity if you are younger than 19 2 proofs of identity if you are older than 19 Proof of Legal United States Presence Proof of Social Security Number (if you’ve been issued one) Proof of Virginia Residency Where is the nearest place I can go to apply for a driver’s license in Virginia? Is it easy to contact my nearest Virginia DMV office? Got a question? Call the Virginia DMV at (804) 497-7100. Who is allowed to bring me for my permit test in Virginia? If you are under 18 years old, it’s best your parent or legal guardian bring you. If they are unable to come, a licensed driver 21 or older may bring you. You must have a signed application by your parent or legal guardian. Is a physical required in order to get a permit in Virginia? A physical examination isn’t required when getting your license in Virginia. If you have a mental or physical condition that would affect your driving, you must give the DMV a medical evaluation from your doctor. A DMV official will evaluate to see if your license should have any restrictions on it. Is a vision test necessary when I go to apply for my Virginia driver’s license? Yes. Your vision must be 20/40 or better in order to pass. Where do I get a photo for my Virginia driver’s license taken? You will have your photo taken at the DMV office. You will not be issued a license if it seems you are wearing a disguise or are distorting your face in any sort of way. What happens after I apply for my Virginia license? The first step in applying for your Virginia license is getting your learner’s permit. Once you pass your knowledge test, you will be issued your learner’s permit in the mail. If you are under age 19, you must wait at least 9 months before getting your driver’s license. During that time you will need to complete a state approved driver’s education course, unless you are home schooled. You also need at least 45 hours of behind-the-wheel training with 15 of those hours being at night. If you are 19 or older, you will need to hold your permit for at least 60 days or show proof that you have completed a driver’s education program. Collapse all Here’s What Other Learners From Virginia Are Saying: "I took my test the 1st time after studying this website the day before, I missed it by one because I second guessed myself. This website is VERY HELPFUL. They do ask the same questions on the real test but be careful and read carefully, because some of the questions are worded differently. 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" Puneeth Rao, Virginia "Thank you to With the help of your tests I was able to successfully pass my written driving tests today in just one go. I spent the better part of 3 days studying all of the tests this website had for the driving test within my state and was able to pass my test today for the first time with a breeze. I know I would not have been as successful just reading through the driving manual provided by the DMV. This website provides questions that are nearly identical to those shown on the actual DMV tests and as such provides a great way to prepare to ace your exam the first go around. Thank you again to this website, I would recommend anyone to use the tests offered by as they are a great tool to prepare you and in the end they will save you time in not having to retake your tests and be able to move forward with your driving success! " Jackie M, Virginia "I was able to pass my test and I only missed 2 questions! Thank you guys so much for providing all of these practice tests they were VERY helpful! " Levi S., Virginia "Passed my test! Got 24 out of 25 correctly. Thanks guys! " Rika N, Virginia "I took these practice tests over and over, at least 20-30 times. Especially focus on the sign tests, since you need 10 out of 10 correct on the actual test, at least in Virginia. I passed my Learner's Permit test with a solid 100% (all 10 sign questions correct, and all 30 random questions correct, in the State of Virginia test). Before I went, I studied the paperback manual given to me at the DMV about three times over, skimmed through it once more on the drive over there, kept reading it while waiting inside the DMV for my number to be called. As said above, I also took these online practice tests a lot. This was just within the last few days, so if you're not feeling too confident, take these tests as much as you can, and read the manual 2-4 times within a few days, or a week. When you start hitting consistent 100% on the practice tests here, you're probably ready to go for the real thing! Whatever you get wrong, try writing it (the corrections) down on paper, then at the end, focus your mind on remembering the correct answers to those. I took that paper with me to skim over the whole time before the test, too, especially the fines and penalties for people who commit traffic violations, drive while intoxicated, etc. Thankfully, not many of those questions came up on the actual test though. Every test is random for each individual though, so I've heard. They'll probably throw 1-2 of those fines and penalties questions in there. Expect 'em. " N. V., Virginia "This site is SUPER helpful. I went online to find practice permit tests, i didn't want to read the manual, and it is basically the test! I went in there super confident and i passed! " Christina H., Virginia "I studied the practice test for Va. and really enjoyed the way the question were asked. Each time I tested myself, I felt better about taking the written test. The day I took the written test I passed it the first time. I just want to say thank you for all your help. Now I am on my way to a better life, being able to drive. Again Thank you so much. " Paulette Martin, Virginia Easy (125 questions) What’s Your Time and Sanity Worth? Sure you can study the DMV handbook, but they don’t give you a pass guarantee. Hard (125 questions) Hardest (50 questions) Exam Simulator Not available in Flashcard Mode Practice offline & on the go with the free DMV Genie app Available for iOS and Android Learn more Knowledge exams you're taking: General Knowledge Hazardous Materials School Bus Passenger Vehicles Air Brakes Combination Vehicles Double/Triple Trailers Tanker Vehicles Pre-Trip Inspection CDL Diagnostic Test (25 questions) General Knowledge (330 questions) What’s Your Time and Sanity Worth? Sure you can study the CDL manual, but they don’t give you a pass guarantee. Hazardous Materials (HazMat) (101 questions) School Bus (80 questions) Passenger Vehicles (67 questions) Air Brakes (121 questions) Combination Vehicles (99 questions) Double/Triple Trailers (60 questions) Tanker Vehicles (61 questions) Pre-Trip Inspection (60 questions) FREE E-Book: 10 Things You Should Do Before Your CDL Knowledge Exam Many people get to the DMV overconfident and underprepared because they fail to do some of the simple things that would allow them to pass easily. What follows are the 10 steps that every aspiring commefcial driver should take to prepare for his or her official CDL or CLP knowledge exam. Download FREE E-Book Not available in Flashcard Mode Practice offline & on the go with the free CDL Genie app Available for iOS and Android Not available in Flashcard Mode.

Free va' e vedic. Già a partire dal titolo, ispirato all'Apocalisse di San Giovanni, l'opera più celebre di Klimov interpella con violenza lo spettatore, trascinandolo da subito, ex abrupto, nella fornace della rappresentazione (a dispetto della titolazione italiana, Idi i Smotri significa Vieni e vedi). Ribadiscono tale tensione diversi dialoghi aperti, frantumati in primi piani frontali, dove gli sguardi irremovibili, di glaciale incuranza, costellano il resoconto di quest'apocalisse terrena e terragna come dardi indisciplinati, diretti a bucare la quarta parete, a minacciare la placidità di chi guarda. Siamo noi il solo controcampo di questi volti senza più interlocutore, irrimediabilmente scissi l'un dall'altro, disposti frontalmente, con schietta teatralità, noi a far da sponda a quel che si dicono, indecisi se immedesimarci o estraniarci: la chiamata in causa non è solo agguato fàtico, e nell'esibizione prolungata di sguardi ad altezza mdp si raffredda, a tratti, l'incandescenza di una fiera delle atrocità altrimenti insostenibile (J. G. Ballard lo considera, non a caso, il miglior film di guerra ch'abbia mai visto). Lo sconvolgente romanzo di de formazione procede in soggettiva (la nostra), si fa specchio fedele di una percezione devastata, come lacera e sconvolta è la psiche di chi passa d'improvviso dal tempo dei giochi al tritacarne della guerra. Gli orrori del conflitto sono (ri)visti sì dagli occhi di un bambino, ma non c'è ombra della fragile poesia che animava L'infanzia di Ivan di Tarkovskij, così com'è lontanissima l'infanzia sognante e rivoltosa del primo, ammirevole Klimov ( Look, the sky! e Benvenuti, ovvero vietato l'ingresso agli estranei). Tutt'attorno alla piccola recluta, avanza un trionfo della morte di proporzioni bruegeliane, convulso e solenne ad un tempo. Si tratta di giorni, forse settimane, ma il suo volto di bambino fa in tempo a invecchiare in maschera statuaria, il terrore ne sfregia la pelle, già decrepita, ne paralizza lo sguardo, d'orbite vuote, ne pietrifica i lineamenti, a nervi spezzati, e lo lascia folle, quasi esanime, a urlare muto, laocoontiano. La sospirata avventura militare, abbracciata con tanto entusiasmo nell'incipit, lo disintegra in tutto e per tutto, congelando l'idiozia suicida del sorriso iniziale in rictus nervoso, come un'ultima, beffarda ferita su un volto divenuto esso stesso cicatrice. In Va' e vedi si fa terra bruciata di molta retorica da war drama, non esistono eroismi ammissibili, né s'intuiscono vie di scampo, consistendo l'azione d'inutili fughe e d'effimeri rifugi. Come in Apocalypse Now, la guerra è uno stato disturbato della mente, l'orrore umano il suo distillato; come ne La sottile linea rossa, alla distruzione generalizzata risponde il canto straziato di una natura edenica e remota; ma nel suo realismo viscerale, nel vivido soundscape e nell'allucinato espressionismo dei suoi attori (tutti non professionisti), il furioso requiem di Klimov non ha pari. La folta aneddotica sul film racconta di scene girate con uniformi originali e armi autentiche, con proiettili veri che passavano dieci centimetri sopra le teste degli attori, e sedute d'ipnosi per il piccolo protagonista, (in)utili a fargli dimenticare le scene più efferate affrontate sul set. Il tentativo spasmodico di giungere al massimo grado di realismo possibile, esso stesso a prova di morte, apporta al film una potenza drammatica inusitata, che trova il suo culmine nell'intensissimo uso del sonoro - si guardi quando calano le prime bombe, di come dal boato avanzi un fischio persistente, assordante, appena screziato dalla voce del ragazzo, inudibile persino a se stesso, e di come segua, nella scena dell'impantanamento dantesco, l'inestricabile selva sonora: un mostruoso frastuono di ronzii, latrati, brandelli di classica, litanie, drones e strépiti d'uccelli, come acufeni incurabili di un mondo ferito a morte. Così il traumatico realismo delle sparatorie, vere e proprie allucinazioni da guerra fredda con quell'artiglieria da incubo, o l'agghiacciante istrionismo del costrutto emotivo, squassato da pianti improvvisi e risate isteriche. Il formalismo visivo non è da meno, con la fotografia a illividirsi insieme al crescendo drammatico e i poderosi pianisequenza a richiamare i sublimi tempi di Tarkovskij (come lui, Klimov era figlio della luminosa influenza/docenza Dovzenko-Romm; da lì anche la viva attenzione di entrambi per il paesaggio). Come il rogo finale che chiudeva Sacrificio, l'ultimo capolavoro di Tarkovskij, così, in quest'altissimo esempio di cinema antimilitarista (e antifascista), un incendio inestinguibile suggella il momento terminale di tutta una filmografia, marchiando a fuoco l'ultima opera realizzata da Klimov, ritiratosi poco dopo. Benché l'edizione italiana sia mutila di una ventina di minuti, Va' e vedi merita ad ogni modo di esser (ri)visto: a tutt'oggi, le braci di questo film dilaniante e inesorabile non smettono di bruciare.

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